Tropical cyclones are potentially devastating weather systems for which
accurate early warning is critical. However, their origins and behaviour
often depend on rather small scale atmospheric structures which are not
well-resolved in global numerical weather prediction models.
The aim of this project is to explore if key features signalling the
genesis, or sudden intensification, of tropical cyclones
can be observed in infrared spectra from a 12km footprint
measured by the IASI instrument on the MetOp satellites.
Such features include warm Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs), high levels
of mid-tropospheric humidity (fuel) and cloud top temperatures.
The work would combine the IASI expertise in AOPP with the forecast modelling
and data assimilation at ECMWF.
The conclusions from this project will be relevant for improving the
use of data from current satellite instruments in operational tropical
cyclone prediction. In addition this study will help pave the way for
the successful exploitation of future satellite instruments. The next
generation geostationary Meteosat sounders (2023 onwards) will observe
the genesis of Atlantic tropical cyclones with high temporal resolution
(up to every 15 minutes) and IASI-NG instruments (2021 onwards) will
provide enhanced information about the vertical structure of these storms.
Computing, atmospheric radiative transfer and thermodynamics.
Typhoon Usagi, NE of the Philippines, observed by the
MetOp 2 satellite as it passed overhead, north-to-south. The map shows
an area approx 2000km square.
The black/white image is from a visible channel on the
the AVHRR instrument, the coloured circles
represent the IASI sounding locations, the colour indicating the approximate
radiative temperature in the 960.7 µm atmospheric window channel.